Like castings, forgings are very popular semi-products used in the industry for the production of a wide range of machinery and equipment components. The specifics of the forging process enable very good mechanical and strength parameters to be obtained, which are much higher than in other production processes. Therefore, the most important and loaded parts of machinery are made of forgings. Due to the changes in the internal structure of materials during processing, forging is used not only to shape the material but also improve its mechanical properties.
The forging process is a method involving the shaping of the input material in the form of ingots, slabs/blooms, billets or rods by applying impact or pressure. As a result of the pressure, the material deforms and slowly transforms into the required shape of the designed product. If material flowing is not limited by tools in any way and it can flow in all directions, it is called open die forging. Another method involves limiting the free flow of the material with a tool called a die, which is known as die forging. This is the most popular method due to the efficiency of the process and the possibility of obtaining accurate forgings.
In most cases, forgings require mechanical machining at the end to form the final shape and dimensions. This results from the limitations of the forging process, which often mean that making holes, undercuts and other geometry features are not possible and can only be achieved with machining. Despite the fact that the current quality and accuracy of die forgings is better and better, a surplus for machining is often produced to allow machining in points where high surface quality or precise dimensions are required. In order to ensure the stable and reproducible process of machining of forgings, it is important to use the proper equipment for mounting them on metal cutting machines.